Fumigation grain – one of the most effective and popular methods pest control – grain pests. Both during storing in warehouses, and during sea shipping. Fumigation includes processing grain by insecticide gases (fumigant). Most widespread are phosphide (phosphine) and bromide methyl. These substances are virulent poisons. It affect insects’ specific time, during which poisoning and killing objects of own action. Technology of fumigation requires accurate preparation and carful screening:  storage facilities, during fumigation have to be hermetically closed, and after fumigation, have to be degassing. There are some others grain moister and environment temperature limitations.

Causes, aims and terms of fumigation.

Grain fumigation during sea shipping has its own specific. Placement of phosphine aluminum tablets executes after hold have been loaded. Because of chemical reaction with oxygen, tablets begin to evolve phosphine. This evolved gas will circulate within hold over the next few days (form 3 days to 3 weeks), during voyage. On completion exposure period hold`s vents must be opened, for degasing. Phosphine is highly toxic for people. In case of gas leakage from nonhermetic hold vessel crew can run highly risk. Because of many cases sailors poisoning and even death form phosphine, there are extra requirements in vessel construction and fumigation procedure and holds ventilation. Special requirements advanced for vessel personal protection equipment, which strictly necessary for crew protection.

At the present, responsibility for supplying vessels by special personal protection equipment are not fully settled both by local and international regulations. Directions of such international organizations as IMO, BIMCO and GAFTA have advisory opinion. IMO recommendation specifies that fumigation company should provide gas analyzer gear and personal protective equipment, but it isn’t strictly determined who is financial responsible for equipment supplying. In practice, this problem comes down to choice between charter and ship-owner, who finally ought to bear expenses of supplying protective equipment to shipboard.